Identification: The Need for Caution | Superior Spirits
General Nature: Identity of Little Importance | Superior vs Inferior | An Additional Caution

General Nature of Communicating Spirits

An Additional Caution

One other important point, or word of caution, should be made, which is that intelligence, as Kardec says, does not necessarily indicate moral superiority, for the two do not always go hand in hand.  Kardec writes that "a man's having possessed scientific knowledge during his human life is not always a proof of his wisdom as a spirit", for such spirits "may be swayed by prejudices of terrestrial life and not yet rid of ideas that they have cherished." 

Lastly, we add this advice from "The Mediums' Book". To discourage deceptive spirits and distinguish between communications of good and inferior spirits, we should submit all spirit communications to scrupulous examination, and analyze the ideas and expressions, rejecting everything that runs counter to reason and common sense, as well as everything in contradiction with the character of the spirit who claims to be manifesting.  When any point appears obscure, suspicious, or doubtful, we must ask for the necessary explanations.

For more reading on the nature and identification of spirits, please see Chapter XXIV of "The Mediums' Book", entitled "Identity of spirits."

Kardec, Allan. "Identity of spirits." The Mediums' Book. 2nd ed (1st edition FEB). Trans. Anna Blackwell (translated 1876). Ed. Livraria Espírita Allan Kardec. Brasilia-DF, Brazil:  Federação Espírita Brasileira [Brazilian spiritist Federation}. 1986. 296-318.

Schubert, Suely Caldas. "A Identificação dos Espiritos" [Identification of spirits] Mediunidade: Caminho Para Ser Feliz [Mediumship: The Path to Happiness]. Sao Paulo. Casa Editora Espírita "Pierre-Paul Didier". 1999.  Place of Publication: Publisher. Year. 126-136.